The homework this week was to implement a perceptron in Python.

Here is the code in Github and I copied it below. It was interesting to see/remember that the weighted sum of the inputs could be calculated with a dot product of the inputs vector with the weights vector.

I played a little with the learning rate and the number of tranining iterations, these I have worked well for the OR gate and for the AND gate.

import numpy as np
N = 2 # Number of inputs
LearningRate = 0.1 # Learning rate
N += 1 # Increment 1 input because of the bias input
# Start with an array of random weights
W = np.random.random( N )*2 - 1 
print("Initial weights")
# This function calculates the weighted sum of inputs and return sign
def infer(x):
    # The weighted sum is the dot product between inputs and weights
    s =,W)
    # Return the result of a function, in this case sign
    return np.sign(s)
# Receive an input / output pair and adjust the weights accordingly
def train(x, y):
    # Expected output for x
    expected = y
    print("Expected %d" % expected)
    # Get the output based in the current weights
    guessed = infer(x)     
    print("Guessed: %d" % guessed)
    # Calculate the error
    error = expected - guessed     
    print("Error: %f" % error)
    # The amount of change in the weights is proportional to the error and input
    deltaW = error*x
    # Multiply it by a constant (learning rate) and return the new weights
    return W + deltaW*LearningRate
# Training data, truth table for OR
# Input columns are first input, second input, and bias input (always 1)
trainingX = np.array( [
# Outputs are either -1 (False) or 1 (True)
trainingY = np.array( [
# Train!
# Repeat the training with the same data several times
for i in range(10):
    print("Iteration number %d " % i)
    # For each example in the training data
    for index, x in enumerate(trainingX):
        print( "Training..." )
        # Get the expected output
        y = trainingY[index]
        # Update the weights with the new ones
        W = train(x,y)
# Results
print("Final weights")
# Infer!
# Put the input data in the model and get the inferred results
print("Starting inferences")
for index,x in enumerate(trainingX):